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Non-specific IVCD With Peaked T Waves

The Patient:   This ECG was obtained from an elderly man who was suffering an exacerbation of congestive heart failure.  He had a history of CHF and hypertension.  We do not have other history available to us.

The ECG:  The rhythm is sinus at 97 bpm (fast for this patient). It is regular with no ectopy.  The PR interval is 155 ms (.15 seconds), and the P waves are upright in the inferior leads. The frontal plane QRS axis is -56 degrees – abnormally leftward.  Notice that Leads II, III, and aVF are all negative.  AVR is equiphasic – the axis travels perpendicular to the positive electrode of aVR, toward the patient’s left shoulder.  The QRS duration is 111 ms (.11 sec.).  This is very close to being wide enough for a diagnosis of left bundle branch block, and represents poor conduction throughout the ventricles. On the chest leads side, there is poor R wave progression. V1 through V4 look almost the same, small r and large S.

The ST segments are generally concave up, and the J points are at the baseline – no ST elevation or depression.  There are no pathological Q waves, unless we count V1, which may have lost it’s Q wave as part of the general poor R wave progression.

Dawn's picture

Teaching Series - Tachycardia and Left Anterior Fascicular Block

This series of three ECGs is from a 60-year-old man who was brought to the Emergency Department after being involved in a motor vehicle accident.  No injuries were found, but the patient was severely intoxicated by alcohol consumption.  He was conscious but agitated. 

ECG NO. 1     15:07:23

The first ECG was taken by fire-rescue personnel at the scene of the accident. His hemodynamic status was stable, and the rate was not addressed in the field. ECG No. 1 shows a supraventricular rhythm at 161 bpm, with a narrow QRS and P waves visible before each QRS. 

A notable feature of this ECG are the left axis deviation, by default diagnosed at left anterior hemiblock (left anterior fascicular block).  The .10 second QRS width is typical of LAHB, as is the rS pattern in Lead III.

Also  noted is the unusual R wave progression in the precordial leads.  The R waves are prominent in V2, and then fail to progress across the precordium, and the S waves persist. This is probably due to the hemiblock.  We do not know this patient’s medical history, except that he self-described as an “alcoholic”.  LAFB can be associated with coronary artery disease. 

ECG NO. 2      15:20:38

Now being evaluated in the Emergency Dept., we see the patient's heart rate is 163 bpm.  Some variability in the rate was noted with patient agitation and activity, so it was determined that the rhythm was probably sinus tachycardia.  There were no other significant changes in the ECG from the first one.  Unfortunately, we no longer have access to lab results, so we do not know his electrolyte or hydration status.  Labs confirmed ETOH intoxication. 

ECG NO. 3   15:43:26

Dawn's picture

Left Anterior Fascicular Block

This ECG provides an example of LEFT ANTERIOR FASCICULAR BLOCK (LAFB).  It is from an elderly woman for whom we have no other history.

The conduction system below the AV node consists of the Bundle of His, the left bundle branch, and the right bundle branch.  While there is some variation among individuals, most of us have two main fascicles, or branches, of the left bundle.  The ANTERIOR-SUPERIOR fascicle carries the electrical impulse to the anterior wall of the left ventricle, and the POSTERIOR - INFERIOR fascicle carries the impulse to the inferior area of the left ventricle.

Blocks can occur at any level in the conduction system, including left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block, left posterior block, and bi-fascicular blocks. LAFB can have many causes, including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies, fibrosis of the cartilagenous ring, and aortic valve disease.  Left anterior fascicular block is much more common than left posterior fascicular block. Both are also called hemiblocks.

When LAFB is present, the initial septal depolarization forces are still left to right, providing a small initial q wave in Lead I and a small r wave in Lead III.  After septal depolarization is complete, the activation vector moves inferiorly and to the right as the electrical wavefront moves through the left posterior hemifascicle and right bundle branch. The impulse finally makes its way to the left and superiorly via slow conduction through myocardium normally depolarized by the left anterior hemifascicle, which is blocked.  It is because the terminal left ventricular activation moves upward and toward the left that the  inferior leads have negative deflections.

The diagnostic criteria for LAFB are:  LEFT AXIS DEVIATION (QRS axis between -45 degrees and -90 degrees); qR pattern in Lead I; rS pattern in Lead III; delayed activation time evident in Lead aVL - the time from onset of the QRS to the peak of the R wave is 45 ms or more. (This example barely makes that criteria); QRS duration normal or slightly wide, but not 120 ms or more (unless there is also RBBB).  LAFB also causes poor R wave progression in the precordial leads, with late transition and S wave present in V6.

Before deciding on a diagnosis of LAFB, you must rule out previous or acute INFERIOR WALL M.I.  The pathological Q waves that can occur with necrosis can cause a left axis deviation in the frontal plane.  The presence of a small r wave in Lead III rules out pathological Q wave in that lead.  If any fascicular block (hemiblock or bundle branch block) occurs during the course of an M.I., the patient should be watched carefully for progression of the block.  Be prepared to pace if necessary in that situation. 

Thanks to our Consulting Expert, Dr. Ken Grauer, for his editing assistance.

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