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Second-degree AV block Type II

Left Bundle Branch Block With Second-Degree AV Block, Type II

Mon, 11/28/2016 - 18:44 -- Dawn

 This ECG was obtained from an 84-year-old woman who was scheduled for surgery.  When the anesthesiologist did this ECG, the surgery was cancelled. It is a very good example of fascicular-level blocks. 

The underlying rhythm is a regular sinus rhythm at about 95 bpm.  There are some non-conducted P waves which are part of the sinus rhythm (not premature beats).  When the P waves DO conduct, the PR interval is steady at about .15 seconds (148 ms).

In addition, there is a LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK.  The ECG criteria for LBBB are:  1) A supraventricular rhythm, 2) A wide QRS, and 3) A negative QRS in Lead V1 and a positive QRS in Leads I and V6.  The QRS duration in this ECG is 136 ms.

There are generally two fascicles (branches) in the left bundle branch, and one main fascicle in the right bundle branch.  So, a LBBB represents a “bi-fascicular block”.  That means that A-V conduction is proceeding down only one fascicle (the right bundle branch).  In that fascicle, there is an “intermittent” block.  When the RBB is not blocked, we see a QRS.  When it is blocked, we see none.  This is then termed an “intermittent tri-fascicular block” – otherwise known as SECOND-DEGREE AV BLOCK, TYPE II.  Type II blocks nearly always have a wide QRS due to the underlying bundle branch pathology.  You may see RBBB, LBBB, or RBBB with left anterior fascicular block (hemiblock).  Very rarely, the combination might include left posterior hemiblock.  The intermittent block in the “healthiest” fascicle(s) is what makes this a second-degree block, and not a complete heart block (third-degree AVB).

The clinical implications of this block are that the heart is operating on only one fascicle, and that fascicle is showing obvious signs of distress.  A third-degree AVB could be imminent.  In addition, LBBB causes a wide QRS, which decreases cardiac output.  Second-degree, Type II AVBs can result in very slow rates, and sometimes cause more hemodynamic instability that some third-degree AV blocks.

This patient was scheduled for pacemaker implantation instead of the originally-scheduled surgery. 

AV Block With Changing PR Intervals

Wed, 09/28/2016 - 21:23 -- Dawn

Just like other subjects we are taught in school, ECG interpretation is usually taught in a very basic, simplistic way.  As we add to our knowledge, we are able to determine the mechanisms of more complex rhythms. 

When I took my first basic ECG rhythm monitoring course, I memorized all the “rules”, and at the end of the course, I thought I could read ANY strip correctly.  Then, in real life, I found that some rhythms can’t be interpreted from one lead, or even from one 12-lead ECG. 

This strip offers advanced readers to challenge themselves, and it offers teachers a chance to show students an “exception to the rules” if it is appropriate for those students.  We all learn the classification of second-degree AV blocks:  Both Type I and Type II show an underlying sinus rhythm with some P waves conducted and some not.  Type I has progressively prolonging PR intervals until a P wave is non-conducted.  The cycle restarts after the dropped QRS.  Type II has PR intervals that are all the same, and may be prolonged or normal. 

In this ECG, you will be able to “march out” a normal sinus rhythm at a rate of 80 bpm.  The P waves are marked with small dots at the bottom.  Two of every three P waves are followed by QRS complexes.  Is it Type I?  No – the PR intervals are not prolonging.  Is it Type II?  The PR intervals are not the same!  What is happening? 

There is also left bundle branch block, which is a sub-Hisian block.  Blocks occurring in the intraventricular conduction system include bundle branch blocks, second-degree AVB Type II,  and third-degree AVB with ventricular escape.  This group of blocks tends to be more threatening than the blocks that occur in the AV node (second-degree type I and third-degree with junctional escape). 

ECG Basics: Second-degree AV Block With Characteristics of Type I and Type II

Thu, 09/01/2016 - 11:51 -- Dawn

This strip shows a second-degree AV block.  During most of the strip, 2:1 conduction is present.  At the beginning, however, two consecutive p waves are conducted, revealing progressive prolongation of the PR interval.  This usually represents a Type I , or nodal, block:  progressive refractoriness of the AV node.   However, the wide QRS ( possibly left bundle branch block), and the fact that the non-conducted p waves are "out in the open" where they should have conducted, points to Type II - an intermittant tri-fascicular block. Wenckebach periods in patients with LBBB can be caused by progressive conduction delay in the right bundle branch.

jer5150's picture

Jason's Blog: ECG Challenge of the Week for Oct. 21-28, 2012

No clinical patient data available for this 12-lead ECG.

What does this tracing show?  Choose the correct answer from the list below.

(1.)  Sinus bradycardia with atrial bigeminy; conducted APBs; prominent U-waves; RBBB
(2.)  Sinus rhythm with 3:2 and 2:1 Type II AV block; RBBB
(3.)  Sinus rhythm with atrial bigeminy; both conducted and nonconducted APBs; RBBB

Acronyms:
APBs = atrial premature beats
RBBB = right bundle-branch block

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