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Prolonged QT interval

Second-degree AV Block, Type II?

Wed, 02/01/2017 - 23:09 -- Dawn

This ECG is taken from an elderly woman who complains of feeling weak and tired. We have no other clinical information, unfortunately.

There is an obvious bradycardia, with more P waves than QRS complexes.  Here is what we see:

*  Atrial rate is around 115/min. and P waves are regular and all alike.

*  Ventricular rate is around 35/min. and QRS complexes are regular and all alike.

*  PR intervals, when they occur, are all the same at 162 ms.

*  QRS duration is wide at 122 ms.

*  QTc interval is prolonged at 549 ms.

What does this mean?  There is sinus tachycardia with second-degree AV block because the atrial rate is over 100/min, but not all P waves are conducted.  The AV block looks like a Type II (Mobitz II) block because the PR intervals are all the same.  This is a reliable indicator of conduction. (Not third-degree AVB).  The wide QRS complexes are due to right bundle branch block.  The ECG signs of RBBB are: 1) wide QRS; 2) supraventricular rhythm; and 3) rSR’ pattern in V1 and Rs, with a wide little s wave, in Leads I and V6.

Electrolyte Effects

Tue, 07/12/2016 - 16:00 -- Dawn

This ECG is from a 46-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus.  She presented to the Emergency Dept. with a complaint of weakness.  Her BP was elevated at 186/102.  Her blood glucose was 936 mg/dL (normal 70-105). 

So, what does her ECG show?

1) Sinus bradycardia at 55 bpm.  The rhythm is regular, with no extrasystoles.

2) A slightly prolonged PR interval at 218 ms (.218 seconds). Normal is 120-200 ms. 

3) A “wide side of normal” QRS duration at 109 ms. Normal is 70-100, but can be a little longer in normal individuals.

4) A prolonged QTc interval at 520 ms.  Normal QTc is 460 ms or less in women. A helpful rule of thumb is that the QT should be less than half the preceding RR. 

5) Normal P waves.

6) Normal axes of P, QRS, and T waves.

7) A large Q wave in Lead III which is not repeated in aVL.  This can be inconsequential when confined to Lead III, or can be a pathological Q wave, especially if also seen in aVF. 

8) Flat ST segments.  Normal ST segments are convex upward, like a smile.

9) Tall, peaked T waves in precordial leads V2 through V6, and in Lead II. 

What does it mean?

Unfortunately, we do not have complete labs for this patient, or any information about her outcome.

We know that patients who have uncontrolled diabetes are at risk for renal failure, so we should consider electrolyte imbalances when we see abnormalities in the ECG. 

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